Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process deemed to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. In plants, basal autophagy is essential for growth and development, it is required for nutrient remobilization during senescence and nutrient deficiency, for removal of organelles and macromolecules formed during plant development or damaged by environmental stresses.
Typy publikací: Konference - poster
Phenolic compounds (phenylpropanoids with an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups and various other substituents) are produced by plants as secondary metabolites, ranging from simple monomers to very large polymers. Due to their antioxidant activity they play crucial roles in plant defences against both biotic and abiotic stressors, moreover they are an important component of animal diet and they are highly beneficial for human health.
Phenolic compounds constitute a substantial group of phenylpropanoids which are produced by plants as secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties. The spectrum and concentrations of phenolic acids serve as a convenient marker of plant resistance to biotic stresses. Phenolics form also an important component of animal diet. Apples are a widely available fruit exhibiting significant concentrations of antioxidants, especially phenolics and carotenoids. Generally, the concentrations and composition of antioxidants vary during ripening and subsequent handling of harvested fruits.
Quantification of histochemical detection of polyphenolic compounds in somatic embryos of Norway spruce
Under standard cultivation conditions, Norway spruce somatic embryos (SEs) accumulate polyphenolic compounds mostly in the root cap. In response to UV-B, the accumulation of polyphenolics increases in protodermal cells and subprotodermal cortical cells and idioblasts in hypocotyl and cotyledons where they can attenuate UV-B stress. To quantify polyphenolic compounds accumulated in somatic embryos on the histological level resin sections were prepared, stained with Toluidine Blue.
The aim of this work was to determine the concentration of selected carotenoids (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin and ß-carotene) and phenolic acids in selected scab resistant and powdery mildew tolerant apple varieties originating from the Station of apple breeding of the IEB. We investigated three different apple varieties - Luna (yellow), Red Topaz (red) and Karneval (streaked) for their antioxidant contents in peel and flesh immediately after the harvest and after 7 months of storage.
The effect of different air humidity during desiccation on the development of Norway spruce somatic embryos
The objective of the study was to follow morphological, selected biochemical and transcriptional characteristics induced by various air humidity during desiccation of Norway spruce somatic embryos. The level of free polyamines lowered, higher forms of polyamines were favoured. Expression profiles of monitored genes were variously influenced by different relative air humidity. Our data proved, that desiccation of somatic embryos is metabolically active process highly affected by relative air humidity.
Somatic embryogenesis is a developmental process where a plant somatic cell dedifferentiate to a totipotent embryonic stem cell that has the ability to give rise to an embryo under appropriate conditions. Desiccation is the final phase of normal embryonic development in most angiosperms and appears to be important in the transition from embryogeny to the ability to germinate and form normal seedlings.
Apples are considered as one of the most important fruit crop with excellent health benefits and extensive
area of cultivation. Majority of their benefits is associated with a relatively high content of antioxidants
including phenolic compounds that belong to the health-promoting phytochemicals.
Phenolic compounds constitute a substantial and an important group of phenylpropanoids produced by
plants as secondary metabolites. The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their
Unbiased estimation of the proportion of non-embryogenic cell clusters in the somatic embryogenic culture of Douglas-fir
Embryogenic cultures of Douglas-fir were induced from immature zygotic embryos. They proliferate as embryonal masses, however, in some lines of Douglas-fir, non-embryogenic cell (NECs) clusters interspersed with early somatic embryos (SEs) were observed. In order to evaluate the differences between lines we wanted to quantify the proportion of the SEs and NECs in the embryonal mass. For estimation of this proportion (volume density) we used stereological point-counting method based on counting points of the test grid falling in the tissue under study.