In Norway spruce, as in many other conifers, the germination capacity of somatic embryos is strongly influenced by the desiccation phase inserted after maturation. The intensity of drying during desiccation eminently affected the formation of emblings (i.e., seedlings developed from somatic embryos). Compared to non-desiccated embryos, the germination capacity of embryos desiccated at 100% relative humidity was about three times higher, but the reduction of relative humidity to 95% and 90% had a negative effect on the subsequent embryo development.
Tags: somatic embryogenesis
Desiccation as a post-maturation treatment helps complete maturation of Norway spruce somatic embryos: carbohydrates, phytohormones and proteomic status
Exposure of Norway spruce (Picea abies) somatic embryos and those of many other conifers to post-maturation desiccation treatment significantly improves their germination. An integration analysis was conducted to understand the underlying processes induced during the desiccation phase at the molecular level. Carbohydrate, protein and phytohormone assays associated with histological and proteomic studies were performed for the evaluation of markers and actors in this phase.
Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process deemed to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. In plants, basal autophagy is essential for growth and development, it is required for nutrient remobilization during senescence and nutrient deficiency, for removal of organelles and macromolecules formed during plant development or damaged by environmental stresses.
Cytological, Biochemical and Molecular Events of the Embryogenic State in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.])
Somatic embryogenesis techniques have been developed for most coniferous species, but only using very juvenile material. To extend the techniques’ scope, better integrated understanding of the key biological, physiological and molecular characteristics of embryogenic state is required. Therefore, embryonal masses (EMs) and non-embryogenic calli (NECs) have been compared during proliferation at multiple levels.
In summary, the exposure of Norway spruce EC to UV-B radiation at different stages of maturation had the strongest effect on cell viability of embryos at early stages of development and resulted in the inhibition of somatic embryo development and/or the substantial decrease in the number of embryos. The extent of cell damage was dependent on the UV-B dose applied, as well as the embryo developmental stage, and might be related to differentiation of the outermost cell layers and formation of protoderm.
Conifer somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process driven by exogenously supplied plant growth regulators (PGRs). Exogenous PGRs and endogenous phytohormones trigger particular ontogenetic events. Complex mechanisms involving a number of endogenous phytohormones control the differentiation of cells and tissues, as well as the establishment of structures and organs. Most of the mechanisms and hormonal functions in the SE of conifers have not yet been described.
Repetitive somatic embryogenesis induced cytological and proteomic changes in embryogenic lines of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)
This first report of cellular and molecular changes after repetitive somatic embryogenesis in conifers shows that each cycle enhanced the structure and singularization of EMs through modulation of growth regulator pathways, thereby improving the line´s embryogenic status.
Our expertise cover methods of anatomy, histochemical detections, and indirect immunofluorescence, determination of the content of plant hormones, and analysis of gene expression. Newly we are also implementing methods of in-vitro virus detection. To control the developmental processes of in-vitro cultures, we use a broad spectrum of newly synthesized bioactive molecules as well as modulators of plant hormone metabolism and perception (e.g. anti-auxins, anti-gibberellins, cytokinin derivatives).
New cells growing on the former ZE either form calluses of different patterns and colours or differentiate to suspensor and meristem cells of early somatic embryos founding new embryogennic culture.
New somatic embryogennic cultures can be induced from zygotic embryos cultivated in vitro on the induction medium. Phytohormones auxins and cytokinins play important role in this phase.