Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process deemed to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. In plants, basal autophagy is essential for growth and development, it is required for nutrient remobilization during senescence and nutrient deficiency, for removal of organelles and macromolecules formed during plant development or damaged by environmental stresses.
Tags: Norway spruce
In summary, the exposure of Norway spruce EC to UV-B radiation at different stages of maturation had the strongest effect on cell viability of embryos at early stages of development and resulted in the inhibition of somatic embryo development and/or the substantial decrease in the number of embryos. The extent of cell damage was dependent on the UV-B dose applied, as well as the embryo developmental stage, and might be related to differentiation of the outermost cell layers and formation of protoderm.
Conifer somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process driven by exogenously supplied plant growth regulators (PGRs). Exogenous PGRs and endogenous phytohormones trigger particular ontogenetic events. Complex mechanisms involving a number of endogenous phytohormones control the differentiation of cells and tissues, as well as the establishment of structures and organs. Most of the mechanisms and hormonal functions in the SE of conifers have not yet been described.
Quantification of histochemical detection of polyphenolic compounds in somatic embryos of Norway spruce
Under standard cultivation conditions, Norway spruce somatic embryos (SEs) accumulate polyphenolic compounds mostly in the root cap. In response to UV-B, the accumulation of polyphenolics increases in protodermal cells and subprotodermal cortical cells and idioblasts in hypocotyl and cotyledons where they can attenuate UV-B stress. To quantify polyphenolic compounds accumulated in somatic embryos on the histological level resin sections were prepared, stained with Toluidine Blue.
Somatic embryogenesis is a developmental process where a plant somatic cell dedifferentiate to a totipotent embryonic stem cell that has the ability to give rise to an embryo under appropriate conditions. Desiccation is the final phase of normal embryonic development in most angiosperms and appears to be important in the transition from embryogeny to the ability to germinate and form normal seedlings.
It is necessary to find convenient and measurable criteria for the evaluation of seeds/embryos quality before germination because of a long time interval between the preparation of seeds or embryos (before germination) and obtaining the seedlings or emblings. The success of all treatments before germination is assessed by the quality of the newly formed plants only.